How Can I Prevent Foundation Problems In My Home?

The best thing you can do to prevent foundation problems is to ensure your building’s foundation is free from excess moisture. Things like stormwater, tree roots, soil conditions are all elements that need to be managed. 

In this article, we will discuss what you can do to prevent foundation problems, the causes, and other precautions that can prevent foundation problems in your home.

What Destroys A Foundation?

The main reason a foundation becomes damaged or unstable is due to moisture. Check your water management system to see if you’re doing everything you can to keep water away from your foundation. Secondly, tree roots can heave and damage foundations. Make sure to plant trees at a good distance from your home, and keep an eye on the ones that are already there. And finally, soil conditions can also lead to damage. So, if you are underpinning South Australia, be aware of the type of soil around your home.

6 Tips To Avoid Foundation Problems

These are the six things you should avoid to keep your foundations intact. These are:

1. Check Storm Water System

If you have a faulty storm water system, it can allow water to pool around your foundation and seep in, swell and heave. Make sure your storm water drains properly so it can carry water away from your foundation.

2. Replace Damaged Gutters And Downpipes

If gutters and downpipes are in poor condition that can also allow water to pool around your foundation. The amount of water in soil around your home’s foundation affects the pressure on the foundation, which can cause it to collapse or shift. Check them regularly and repair or replace them as needed.

3. Beware Of Tree Roots

Tree roots can go considerably deep into the ground and out of sight. As a result, tree roots can suck moisture away from foundations and cause damage. So, it is important to check for problems and take action if necessary.

4. Don’t Plant Trees Near Building

Be sure to plant anything sturdier like bushes or shrubs in your flower beds. They should be planted at least two feet away from the edge of your home’s foundation. This will ensure that both roots and drainage go where they belong — away from the house.

5. Monitor Cracks In Home

Always check your foundation and keep an eye on your walls and flooring. If you notice any cracks, get expert help as soon as possible. This is the best opportunity to correct the damage and prevent further foundation movement. The earlier you detect foundation problems, the easier they are to fix. You already have a significant issue if you see large fractures or wall bowing in your home.

6. Consult A Professional

Finally, get a professional inspection if you notice anything suspicious about your foundation or just want a clear picture of your real risk for this kind of worry. They can tell you whether your foundation is in good shape. Also, they can give you a few clues for the best prevention measures in your region.

Suppose you notice anything unusual about your foundation. In that case, we recommend getting a professional inspection or wanting a clear understanding of your real risk for this worry. They will not just tell you if your foundation is in excellent condition, but they’ll also be able to offer you some ideas on how to keep it that way in your area.

Underpinning is a complex process and you can’t do it yourself. Check our blog can you DIY underpinning to know more.

By keeping a vigilant eye on your home, yard, and foundation, you may avoid the headache of a damaged foundation.

Can You Underpin A House Yourself?

You can only underpin your house yourself if you have previous experience working in this industry. You shouldn’t consider underpinning a house yourself if you don’t have the equipment, proper experience and licensing. 

Are you wondering if it’s possible to underpin yourself? In this article, we’ll discuss whether it’s safe to underpin yourself. What are the dangers, and the benefits of using an expert.

Is DIY Underpinning A House Possible?

DIY Underpinning is only possible if you’re experienced, have proper skills, and have industry knowledge. Without lacking any of the mentioned, we highly recommend not underpinning your house yourself.

If you’re knowledgeable, have appropriate abilities, and have industry knowledge, DIY underpinning is doable. However, you will still need to consult an engineer and install the pins to their requirements. 

What are the risks of underpinning a house yourself?

– You can’t guarantee the workmanship

– You may jeopardise the property’s structure 

– Any mistake in the process can result in personal injury and permanent property damage

– You could void your insurance policy

– It may not meet compliance regulations

You can check out our other blog here if you want to know how to prevent foundation issues.

Why Should You Choose A Professional Underpinning Contractor?

Choosing a professional underpinning contractor is wise because underpinning projects are complex, dangerous, and require relevant experience.

Here are the reasons for choosing a professional underpinning contractor:

– They have the experience to handle any underpinning job correctly

– They use the latest technology and equipment

– They can provide a written guarantee

– They are insured and licensed

– They will comply with all building codes and regulations

If you are curious about does my house need underpinning, check our blog here.

Underpinning is Complex

It’s a complex process involving excavating around your house’s foundation to a depth of several feet. Then, concrete piers are installed to support the weight of the house. The entire process must be done carefully to avoid damaging the house’s structure.

Underpinning is dangerous

There are many dangers associated with underpinning, such as:

  • You can injure yourself if you’re not careful with heavy tools.
  • DIY underpin can damage your property Temporarily and permanently
  • Overcorrecting relevel can worsen the cracks
  • DIY underpin doesn’t comply with housing authority regulations and can void insurance

Underpinning Requires Experiences

Completing an underpinning project requires experience and should only be done by a professional underpinning contractor. Every project is different, and without relevant experience, you end up costing higher than required.

What About A Warranty On Underpinning?

You will get a warranty on your underpinning service if done by an authorized contractor. The warranty will protect you in case of any issue with underpinning. Most underpinning contractors in Adelaide provide at least 10 years of warranty on underpinning.

We recommend using an expert foundation repair contractor always for any underpinning project. They have the experience, equipment, and resources to do the job safely and correctly. Choose a contractor that is insured and licensed and can provide a written guarantee.

How Can I Tell If My Home Needs Underpinning?

There are a few telltale signs that indicate your home may need underpinning. Cracks in walls and corners, windows that don’t shut or open are warning signs of a problem with the foundation and you need underpinning.

In this article, we’ll discuss the signs your home may need underpinning and what you can expect from the process. This is what our team at Adelaide Underpinning Group recommends any client to consider when looking at undergoing foundation repairs. 

What are the signs a house needs underpinning?

A few indications will tell you if you immediately need an underpinning service for your house. They are –

Cracks are visible in walls and corners

One common sign that a home needs underpinning is cracking in the walls and corners. It may be caused by foundation settlement when the soil beneath a home begins to shrink and settle. As the soil thins and compacts, the foundation can no longer support the weight of the home, leading to cracks in the walls and floors.

Windows don’t open and close properly

Windows that don’t close or open properly can also indicate that your home needs underpinning. This often happens due to foundation movement, which can occur when the soil around the foundation starts to move and shift. Foundation movement can cause the window frames to become misaligned and even lead to windows popping out.

Floors are not level

Another sign that your home may need underpinning is if your floors are not level. This can be caused by settlement or erosion of the soil beneath the house. When the soil shifts, it can create uneven surfaces that can be dangerous for people walking on them. It can also lead to water infiltration and damage your home’s foundation.

If you notice any of these problems in Adelaide, it’s important to have them checked out by a professional like our team at Adelaide Underpinning Group as soon as possible. Failing to address a foundation issue can lead to much bigger (and more expensive) problems down the road.

Is it OK to buy a house that has been underpinned?

It is ok to buy a house that has been underpinned by a licensed contractor and is certified by a structural engineer. Otherwise, it might be risky and expensive (it might need to rework or lead to further damage). Keep in mind that it’s a technical yet physically demanding work and can’t be DIY. Check the potential risks by reading our blog can you DIY underpinning?

Do I need a permit for underpinning in Adelaide?

Yes, you will need a permit to underpin your home in Adelaide. There are some instances where a permit is not required, such as underpinning an internal wall, but this is better discussed with your underpinning contractor. Your underpinning contractor will also organise a geotechnical report known as a soil test and engineering to apply for the permit.
Underpinning is a process of stabilizing and restoring the foundation of a house. It’s important to have your home checked for any signs of foundation failure by a certified contractor. For more details, you can check our other blog when do you need to underpin?

What Is Underpinning And When Is It Needed?

Underpinning is a foundation repairs process used to reinforce the foundation of an existing structure where a slab or strip footing is used. This is done by extending the foundation to a deeper, more stable level to reduce and minimise foundational movement.

In this article, we’ll discuss what underpinning is, when you need it and some different types of building foundations and footings. 

When is underpinning needed?

Underpinning is usually necessary when repairing or strengthening a foundation that has been damaged or when you need to increase the structural support for a building. This can be necessary when another story is added to a building a renovation is taking place.

You should consider underpinning your house if –

– Your house is built on reactive soils and you’ve noticed movement

– The fill under your foundation is not compacted properly.

– There is poor drainage around your foundation.

– You are planning to extend or renovate your house.

– You have cracks in your walls and floors

– Your doors and windows are not closing correctly.

If you see all or most of the above happening, you need to contact a local contractor who works on repairing foundations.

Types of building foundations and footings

There are different types of building foundations and footings. They are –

Slab on Ground

This is the most common type of foundation. It’s a concrete slab poured directly onto the ground. The soil underneath the slab must be compacted to provide a stable base. If the soil is not compacted correctly, it can settle over time and cause the foundation to crack or collapse.

Suspended Floors

Unlike a traditional floor, a suspended floor is not laid on the ground. Instead, it is connected to the ground by stumps or piers.

Continuous footings

Continuous footings are used to support loads that are distributed evenly. They can be concrete strips or slabs. They are commonly used to support walls built on sloping sites.

Pad footings

Pad footings are used to support loads that are not evenly distributed. They are usually concrete pads or piers that are commonly used to support columns, posts, and stairs.


Stumps are posts that support a house’s subfloor and are concreted into the ground. They’re commonly made of reinforced concrete but can also be steel or timber.


Piles are long, vertical steel or concrete sections are driven into the ground. Piles are used to strengthen the foundation where the soil is not sturdy enough to support the weight of the house. Piles are usually used with a pad footing or a strip footing.


Piers are vertical structures that support a building’s beams. They are made from steel or concrete. Once the piers are set into the dug holes, it is reinforced with concrete to stay in place.

Why do building foundations fail?

There are several reasons for failing a building’s foundation. These include –

Reactive Soils

Reactive soils are soils that expand and contract in response to changes in moisture content. This can cause the soil to heave or settle, damaging the foundation.

Poorly Compacted Fill

Suppose the fill under the foundation is not compacted properly. In that case, it can settle over time and cause the foundation to crack or collapse.

Site Erosion

Erosion can also damage a foundation. When water washes away soil from around the foundation, it can leave the foundation unsupported and susceptible to damage.

Also, if you want to know more about underpinning, we have a blog explaining, “does my home need underpinning?“. You should check this out.

To know which unpinning method is suitable for your house, we recommend contacting a foundation repair contractor. They will inspect the surrounding, foundation, and footing of your house to identify the problem. After that, they will brief you on what to do and the estimated cost and time. We have written a blog to give you an idea about the cost of underpinning, read this blog to get a clear picture.

How much does it cost to underpin a house in Adelaide?

On average, underpinning a house in Adelaide ranges from $4,500 to $40,000. Larger projects with more involved can cost up to $75,000. The price for underpinning depends on a number of factors that includes number of pins being installed, the method used, and access. 

In this article, we’ll go through the cost of underpinning a house in Adelaide. We’ll also touch on the different underpinning methods used and how they may affect cost.

What is underpinning?

Underpinning is the process of reinforcing the foundation of a structure. This is usually done by excavating around the perimeter of the foundation and installing support beams or piers underneath. Need more info on what is underpinning? Check out this blog. 

What are the different underpinning methods?

There are a few different methods of underpinning, each with their own benefits and drawbacks. The most common methods are concrete slab underpinning and screwpile underpinning:

Concrete slab underpinning

Concrete slab underpinning is the most popular method of underpinning in Adelaide. It involves excavating around the perimeter of the house and pouring a concrete footing to support the foundation. This method is quick, relatively inexpensive, and can be done without damaging the house. However, it is not suitable for all types of foundations.

Screwpile underpinning

Screwpile underpinning is another method of underpinning that has become popular in recent years. It involves driving steel piles into the ground to support the foundation. This method is more expensive than concrete slab underpinning, but it is less likely to damage the house and can be used on all types of foundations.

What Should You be Looking for in an Underpinning Quote?

There are number of factors you should consider when getting a quote. Here are the main things to look for:

Fixed Price Quotation

When receiving an underpinning quotation, be sure it is a fixed price quote. This implies that the price quoted is permanent and will not fluctuate based on any unforeseen expenditures. Adelaide Underpinning Group always gives fixed price quotes, so you can be certain you’ll know precisely what you’ll pay.

Transparent Quotation

Underpinning quotes should be simple and jargon-free. If they’re not, seek clarification and double-check that you understand everything before going forward. Our team at Adelaide Underpinning Group uses plain English and is always available to answer questions by phone or email.

Fixed Time Frame

When getting an underpinning quote, it is important to ensure that the contractor can provide a work schedule that clearly outlines each stage of the process and how long it will take. They should also be prepared to work according to a fixed timetable, of course, depending on the weather. Adelaide Underpinning Group always provides a clear work schedule and timeline for each job, so you can be confident that the work will be completed on time.

What are the Disadvantages of Underpinning?

Concrete underpinning has been a highly effective construction practice for over a century. But there are some disadvantages to using this method that homeowners should be aware of when searching for underpinning contractors in Adelaide. In this article, we’ll run through what some of the advantages and disadvantages of concrete underpinning are, and explore the alternatives. 

5 Main Disadvantages of Concrete Underpinning

The 5 main disadvantages of concrete underpinning are:

  1. It can be expensive
  2. Depending on the location, underpinning can be obstructive
  3. It can be intrusive to underpin internal walls
  4. Bad access is very challenging
  5. The underpinning process can take up to 3 weeks

5 Main Advantages of Traditional Underpinning

Though it has some drawbacks, traditional concrete underpinning has many benefits that outweigh its downsides. 

The 5 main advantages of underpinning are:

  1. Concrete underpinning has been around for over a century

This method of foundation repairs is a tried-and-true method for repairing and strengthening foundations.

  1. Traditional Underpinning requires engineering 

As traditional underpinning needs an engineer to design the plans, you know you’re in safe hands.

  1. Underpinning rarely fails 

When using a licensed contractor, engineered underpinning rarely fails. 

  1. Worst case scenario: underpinning fails

No problem, the underpinning contractor can come back and make the necessary adjustments. With other methods like resin injection this cannot be done. 

  1. Underpinning is highly effective

There isn’t many scenarios were underpinning doesn’t work.

Is resin injection as good as underpinning?

No, resin injection isn’t as reliable as underpinning. It cannot be engineered and if it fails, cannot be reversed. So, we don’t recommend using a method where you can’t estimate the cost, can not rectify any mistake, or can damage the surroundings permanently.

Can Underpinning fail?

Yes, underpinning can fail for various reasons. They are:

– The underpinning was not engineered

– The method of underpinning is not appropriate for the soil conditions

– The foundation is not properly prepared before underpinning

– The load on the underpinned foundation is too much

All these reasons can lead to failure of underpinning. That’s why working with a qualified contractor with experience in underpinning is very important. Want to know how long does it take to underpin a house? Have a read of this article. 

Underpinning is a process of stabilising and restoring the foundation of a house. Having your home checked for any signs of foundation failure is important, as failing to address these issues can lead to much bigger (and more expensive) problems. Contact a local professional for advice if you notice any of the symptoms discussed in this blog post.

In this article we have been through the advantages and disadvantages of concrete underpinning, whether or not resin injection is as good as traditional underpinning and whether underpinning can fail. In summary, though it has its drawbacks, underpinning is a sound method for foundation repairs on strip footings and slabs and is much more reliable than resin injection underpinning.

How Long Does It Take To Underpin A House?

On average, it will take 1-2 weeks to underpin a house. The bigger the size of the building, the more time it will take to complete underpinning of a house. Larger projects can take up to 4 weeks.

In this article, we will discuss the time required to underpin a house, the foundation repairs process behind it, and whether underpinning can damage your property.

How Long Does Underpinning Take?

Underpinning a house can take approximately 2 weeks. For larger homes, it can take up to 4 weeks. The process of underpinning a house is not complicated, but it is time-consuming.

What Is The Process Of Underpinning A House?

Underpinning is one of the foundation repairs processes that adds extra footings or supports to your house in order to arrest foundational movement affecting the building’s structure. The goal of underpinning is to set your foundations on a more stable, sturdy, stronger, and less prone-to-move foundation.

Once engineering has been completed, underpins are installed around the affected area of the foundation. Trenches are dug below the footing, and steel reinforced concrete is poured to about 300mm below the existing footing into the trenches to create support for the building’s footing. These new concrete pins need to cure for at least 24 hours before the next step can be started.

Next, the building is ‘jacked up’ or raised using hydraulic jacks placed between the new concrete pads and the existing footing. Once the desired height has been reached, the gap is filled with concrete to complete the new underpin. 

The same steps are repeated for the next underpin until the project is completed. 

Do You Have To Move Out During Underpinning?

No, you don’t need to move out during underpinning. In some cases you may need to move out if there are internal walls affected but for the most part you will not need to leave. If done by a professional, it’s safe to stay in the house but make room to work for the workers.

Will Underpinning Cause Damage To My Home?

Most of the time, underpinning will not cause any damage to your home. However, if renovation has been performed, the process of lifting or jacking the building may cause cracks to appear inside the property.    We recommend you discuss this with your chosen underpinning contractor. 

There are some disadvantages of underpinning. If you would like to know more, check this blog.

How Often Do You Need To Underpin A House?

Once you have an experienced underpinning technician underpin your home, you should not need to underpin your home again. Concrete underpinning can last for decades, but you can’t guarantee results for resin underpinning. So, choose your underpinning method wisely to avoid further foundation repair work.

Do I Need To Underpin The Whole House?

In most cases, only a section of the house will need to be underpinned. However, more underpinning can be required in homes more affected by subsidence and foundational movement. 

Underpinning a house is a process that can provide your home with more stable soil and a stronger foundation. In this blog post, we have discussed what underpinning is, how long it takes, and whether you need to move out during the process. If you are considering having your home underpinned, contact a professional for advice and guidance.

What Is Resin Injection Underpinning?

Resin injection underpinning is a foundation repair process where resin is injected into the ground, filling any gaps along its path and hardening to create a firm foundation. The process is used as an alternative to the concrete underpinning where small holes are drilled to inject resin into different layers of the foundation. If you are planning underpinning in Adelaide, checkout this blog.

In this article, we will discuss whether it’s a good idea to use resin underpinning and what are the advantages or disadvantages of using this method.

How Long Has Resin Injection Underpinning Been Around?

For the last 30 years, resin injection underpinning has been used as a foundation repair method. It is the newest technology, but the effectiveness of the process is questionable. The process was first used in Europe and has slowly made its way to other countries.

If you want to know how long does it take to underpin, check this blog for more info.

What Are The Disadvantages Of Resin Injection Underpinning?

There are a few disadvantages of using resin injection underpinning. They are:

  • Once done, it can’t be corrected, and no re-engineering possible.
  • You can’t install concrete underpins where resin underpin has been performed.
  • The resin can enter cracked pipes, filling up underground services with solid resin.
  • It is more expensive than other methods, such as concrete underpinning.
  • It is not as durable as concrete.
  • You can’t measure how much resin you need to fix the error as you can’t see beneath the earth.

What Are The Advantages Of Resin Injection?

Though resin injection is not the highly recommended method by most structural engineers and contractors, there are some advantages as well:

  • It is less intrusive than concrete underpinning, so there is no need to excavate around your property.
  • The process is faster, so you can move on with life more quickly.
  • It can be used in areas where concrete underpinning can’t be used, such as near trees or internal walls.
  • It’s good for pathways, small patches, and internal walls if they are not heavy load-bearing.

Is Resin Injection Underpinning As Good As Concrete Underpinning?

No, resin injection underpinning doesn’t perform as well as concrete underpinning. It is not as strong or durable and can’t be used in all situations.

If you want to know the difference between restumping and underpinning, check this blog for more details.

The “Botox Of Underpinning”

Resin injection underpinning has been called the “botox of underpinning” because it is a quick fix that doesn’t always last long. Many engineers believe it is not a permanent solution and should only be used in cases where concrete underpinning can’t be used.

If you’re considering resin injection underpinning for your foundation repair, consult a structural engineer or local foundation contractor to see if it’s the right choice for your situation. There are many other options out there that may be better suited for your needs.

What is the Difference Between Restumping and Underpinning?

The main difference between restumping and underpinning is that restumping only replaces the stumps that are causing structural problems, while underpinning involves adding more support to the existing foundation. The other main difference is that underpinning is performed when the footing system is made from stumps, whereas underpinning is when the footing is a slab or strip footing. 

In this blog, we’ll discuss how restumping and underpinning work, whether a building is built on stumps or slab and how to tell for your property. Always consult licensed underpinning contractors before attempting to rectify foundation issues. 

What is underpinning?

Underpinning is a foundation repair process where a building’s footing is reinforced using steel-reinforced concrete pads. It can only be done if the structure is on a slab or a strip footing.

What are the different Underpinning Methods?

Underpinning can be done in a few different methods. They are:

  1. Traditional concrete Underpinning
  2. Piling Underpinning
  3. Micro-piling Underpinning
  4. Screw piles Underpinning
  5. Jet grouting Underpinning
  6. Resin injection Underpinning

You always need to consult authorised underpinning contractors to inspect your site and suggest what is best for your house.

What Is Restumping?

Restumping is the process of replacing damaged home stumps with new ones. Three types of stumps are available in the market — timber, concrete, and steel. Timber is the cheapest among all three yet more prone to damage, while concrete and steel are more expensive and durable.

Is Underpinning The Same As Restumping?

No, they are two different foundation repairs used on two different types of footing systems. Underpinning is done on the structure built on a slab, while the restumping can only be done on building on stumps.

How Do I Know If My House Is Built On Stumps?

If you find these around your home, they’re most likely on stumps:

– The structure is suspended above the ground.

– You can see steel, concrete, or timber stumps underneath your subfloor.

– There are vents around the perimeter of your home.

How Do I Know If My House Is Built On A Slab?

If no stumps are visible under your subfloor and your house isn’t elevated above ground level, it’s likely on a slab.

If you want more information about foundation problems, you can check our blog why do building foundations fail.

If you don’t know whether your home needs restumping or underpinning, this blog will help you. We’ve explained the differences between each repair process and how to determine which one is right for your home. We also recommend using a licensed professional to complete any restumping or underpinning work. With their experience and expertise, they’ll be able to properly assess your home’s needs and provide a solution that will stand the test of time.

Why do building foundations fail?

The main reasons a building foundation fails are subsidence and reactive soils. However, there are other factors and causes of subsidence.

In this article, we will discuss why building foundations fail, what subsidence is, the causes, and go through different underpinning methods.

What Is Subsidence?

Subsidence is the ground surface shifting downward caused by natural and man-made processes. In many cases, this subsidence is caused by reactive soils – that is, soils that expand and contract in response to changes in moisture levels.

What Are The Signs Of Subsidence In A House?

The most obvious sign of subsidence is cracking on internal and external walls. However, keep an eye on the following types of cracking:

  • Step cracks that are spread across the wall diagonally
  • Cracks are visible both inside and outside of the wall bricks
  • The diameter of the crack is 3mm+
  • Cracks at the corners of doors and windows
  • You found cracks after long dry weather.
  • Cracks are found close to the joints or extension

However, remember that just one crack in the wall does not always indicate a subsidence issue. Many less serious reasons for cracks to appear; including the walls or ceilings of your home are due to swelling and contracting over time to temperature fluctuations. 

How Do You Fix Subsidence?

Underpinning is the main process to fix subsidence where the existing foundation is strengthened or rebuilt. The choice of underpinning technique will be influenced by several factors such as the type of building, its age and condition, the nature of the ground, the water table level, and the importance of maintaining the stability of adjacent structures.

What Are the Types of Underpinning?

There are mainly two types of underpinning techniques:

Concrete Underpinning

Concrete underpinning is the process of excavating around sections of the building’s perimeter, and pouring a concrete foot to support the foundation. Though this is a very effective technique, it is not suitable for every foundation type.


Screwpile underpinning is another tool in the tool belt of foundation repair. This process drives steel screw piles into the ground to support your home’s foundation. Though it comes at a higher cost, it’s very effective for reaching deeper, more stable earth. 

Now you know about underpinning, you may be wondering what the difference between reblocking and underpinning is. This article answers those questions. 

Can You Permanently Fix Subsidence?

Yes, underpinning is a process that can fix subsidence. However, please keep in mind that nothing is permanent. Most foundation repair or underpinning contractors will guarantee their work for 10 years.

Does Underpinning Stop Subsidence?

Yes, underpinning can stop subsidence. For example, when pouring concrete into the part of the foundation where the subsidence occurs, the surrounding soils become stronger enough to support the footing. As a result, it stops the subsidence for a long time.

No matter how well they are constructed, all buildings will eventually experience some form of foundation failure. While the reasons for this failure can vary, the most common cause is subsidence – or the sinking of the ground on which the building stands. Other causes of foundation failure include settlement (caused by a change in the weight of the building or its contents), earthquake damage, and improper construction. No matter what the cause is, if you notice subsidence, always contact a foundation repair contractor or structural engineer to inspect the damage and take their advice.